It is difficult to come to an agreement when normative issues are concerned. Are the “moderate” forms of European secularisms flexible enough to include the Muslim population as well, as Tariq Modood suggests? Or are they “irretrievably flawed,” as Rajeev Bhargava has argued, because they emerged from a context in which Christian confessions dominated and were not set up to include non-Christian minorities? Or should we get rid of the language of secularism altogether and instead refer to liberal-democratic constitutionalism as a meta-language, as Veit Bader has proposed?Read the rest of Multiple secularities and their normativity as an empirical subject.
Monika Wohlrab-Sahr is a professor of cultural sociology at the University of Leipzig in Germany. Her English-language articles include "Secularization as Conflict," Social Compass 55/2008, 2: 127-139 (with Thomas Schmidt-Lux and Uta Karstein) and "The Stable Third: Non-religiosity in Germany," in Bertelsmann Stiftung (ed.), What the World Believes. Analyses and Commentary on the Religion Monitor 2008, 149-166 (Verlag Bertelsmann-Stiftung, 2009).